9 Ways the Pandemic Will Change Travel in 2021

As 2020 ends, and with vaccination against the coronavirus ramping up, would-be travelers wonder what they can expect in the coming year, and beyond. Here’s what we know.

By Tariro Mzezewa, Ceylan Yeginsu, Elaine Glusac and Sarah Firshein

Travelers and the travel industry are looking forward to a brighter 2021. Here, an airplane lands at sunrise at Charles-de-Gaulle Airport near Paris.Credit...Christian Hartmann/Reuters


The travel world has been on a roller coaster in 2020. Even as vaccination campaigns started in the United States and Europe, countries slammed shut their borders to visitors from the United Kingdom, because of a new strain of the coronavirus. 

And while the number of people flying in the United States is again on the rise — topping 1 million a day on the weekend before Christmas — a patchwork of quarantine and testing regulations remains in place in many parts of the country.

Worldwide, Covid-19 has killed more than 1.5 million people, sickened millions more and short-circuited economies. Of all the industries reeling from its destructive impact, the travel industry was upended like no other.

Travel has been changed by past calamities. Safety measures instituted after the 9/11 attacks are now just part of the travel experience. It’s unclear just which changes to the travel landscape will be in place a year from now — or 10 years on — but some answers are starting to come into focus.

On the brink of the new year, we looked at nine of the most pressing queries facing the travel industry and individual travelers — here are the answers.

An Israeli medical worker fills out an international certificate of vaccination for coronavirus at the Sheba Medical Center, near Tel Aviv.Credit...Jack Guez/Agence France-Presse — Getty Images


Will I need to prove I’ve been vaccinated to travel?

In November, Qantas Airlines announced that once a coronavirus vaccine was available, passengers hoping to fly on the airline would need to prove that they had taken it. Alan Joyce, the airline’s chief executive, described the need for proof of vaccination as “a necessity.”

“I think that’s going to be a common thing talking to my colleagues in other airlines around the globe,” he said.

Indeed, many airlines are currently testing technology to streamline the health documentation process, including mobile health apps like CommonPass, ICC AOKpass and VeriFLY to ensure travelers can present their health data in a secure, verifiable way.

It’s not known yet whether some kind of universal health form or certificate will be required to travel because that would require participation from various countries and organizations, but that’s happened before. 

The International Certificate of Vaccination or Prophylaxis, known to many as the carte jaune or yellow card, was originally created in the mid 1930s by the World Health Organization. 

Versions were used as proof for vaccination against diseases including yellow fever, typhus and smallpox, and many countries still require proof of certain vaccinations when traveling. 

For those travelers who have relocated to foreign countries over the years, the possibility of sharing personal health information isn’t unusual, as many visa and residency applications call for medical exams.

Today’s apps have to address a host of issues around carrying health data, including privacy and standardization. For one, nobody wants to carry around a printed health record that could contain sensitive information in addition to proof of testing or vaccination. 

For another, such records could be forged with image-editing tools. And in this increasingly global world, a traveler’s health documents could be written in a language that is unfamiliar to an airport official.

The Commons Project, the nonprofit that is developing the CommonPass, said its app connects with websites for medical facilities, and those sites then load verification of completed test or vaccine record inside the app, limiting the amount of private information that is shared. 

Others are taking a similar approach.

A common request from people across the industry is for governments to work together to standardize testing and vaccination requirements. For example, travelers who are vaccinated in the United States should know that their vaccination and documentation is valid in Thailand and vice versa. — Brian Chen and Tariro Mzezewa

How long must I wait until travel picks up?

With approved vaccines being administered in Britain, Canada, the United States and elsewhere, industry insiders are hopeful that people will transition from searching for trips online to booking them.

“A safe, effective and well-distributed coronavirus vaccine is the linchpin for a return to travel normalcy,” Scott Keyes, founder of Scott’s Cheap Flights, an online booking platform, wrote in a recent email. “Great news on the vaccine front is great news on the travel front.”

But the initial distribution of the vaccine may not equal a swift return to mass travel. While some experts believe that pent-up demand will have people rushing in large numbers to book “vaxications,” others, including Anthony S. Fauci, the nation’s top infectious disease expert, think the return to travel will be gradual, with people easing their way back.

“I think it’s going to be gradual,” Dr. Fauci told The Times this month. “There is no black and white, light switch on, light switch off.”

Until the vaccine is widely distributed, rigorous testing will remain a key part of the travel experience — before and after traveling. (Expect testing to be offered as an amenity at a growing number of hotels.) Still, for many in the industry, the vaccines provide a reason to be hopeful.

“After months of a ‘cautiously optimistic’ tone, we now look to this vaccine as a means to bring back some travel demand,” said Mike Deitemeyer, chief executive-elect and president of Aimbridge Hospitality, whose portfolio includes more than 1,500 branded and independent properties in 49 states and 20 countries.

Road trips, which won 2020, are expected to remain popular as they guarantee comfort and control for travelers. Cruise lines are reporting strong bookings for summer 2021 and airline travel is expected to pick up in the second quarter of the year, with international travel outpacing domestic travel, according to the travel marketing firm MMGY Global, a significant change from bookings for 2020.

Canada’s prime minister, Justin Trudeau, has said that he hopes that every Canadian who wishes to be vaccinated will have done so by the end of the year. In Canada and the United States, vaccinations will be difficult to distribute in remote and rural areas. 

For low-income countries with less robust infrastructure, it could take until 2024 to obtain enough vaccines to fully immunize populations. That means it could take a while for Africa’s $12.4 billion safari industry to bounce back.— T. M.

Passengers aboard the World Dream on a “cruise to nowhere” watch a movie at an open air screening. A similar sailing was cut short when a passenger tested positive for the coronavirus, though he was later cleared. Credit...Ore Huiying for The New York Times

When can I get back on a cruise ship?

Since the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention lifted its “no sail” order on United States cruises October, cruise companies have been scrambling to set up an infrastructure that meets the requirements the health agency laid out for the safe resumption of sailings.

Most major cruise lines had planned to restart operations in early 2021, but the resurgence of the coronavirus has forced many of them to push back their start dates.

Carnival, Royal Caribbean and Norwegian have paused all sailings through the end of February, but it’s unlikely any large-scale operations will begin soon after that date. Already certain voyages have been postponed to late 2021 and 2022.

“We apologize to our guests, but we must continue to take a thoughtful, deliberate and measured approach as we map out our return to operations in 2021,” said Christine Duffy, the president of Carnival Cruise Line. “Our commitment to the health and safety of our guests, crew and the communities we visit is at the forefront of our decisions and operations.”

The C.D.C.’s health and safety protocols include extensive testing, quarantine measures and social distancing. Cruise operators are required to carry out simulation cruises to test the new framework before applying for a permit from the agency that will allow them to restart excursions with passengers.

Most cruises will resume sailing at a reduced capacity with limited itineraries. In the United States, initial excursions will be limited to seven days, according to C.D.C. guidelines. 

Masks will be mandatory in all public areas onboard vessels, including outdoor decks, according to the Cruise Lines International Association, the industry’s trade group.

Even with heightened safety measures in place, several cruise lines in Europe and the Caribbean that sailed in recent months were forced to cut their trips short after reporting virus outbreaks onboard.

In October, eight people aboard the Costa Diadema tested positive for the virus following an excursion to the Greek Islands. 

In November, seven passengers and two crew members tested positive on a SeaDream Yacht Club voyage around the Caribbean. Most recently, Royal Caribbean’s Quantum of the Seas cut short its “cruise to nowhere” and returned to Singapore after an 83-year-old passenger initially tested positive for the virus. 

Further testing found the passenger to be negative.

While major cruise lines with the capacity to carry more than 250 passengers have said they will require testing before passengers board a vessel, the details of testing protocols during cruises are still unclear.

“The testing framework remains fluid because the test time frames have been changing over the last seven months in terms of how quickly and effectively they can turn around,” said John Downey, president of the Americas at Hurtigruten, a Norwegian cruise company, which is aiming to restart its European voyages in April. 

“We are working with experts to explore the most recent testing protocols and once we have the best option available, we will figure out how to execute that plan operationally.”

Despite the risks and challenges, cruise fans are eager to sail and have been booking excursions for 2021. 

Since April, 80 percent of cruise shoppers surveyed by the Cruise Critic, a major cruise planning website, said they had booked for next year.

A recent report by the website also found that travelers are spending more on cruises with the average cost of a booked cruise up by 120 percent, compared to the same period last year, mainly because more people are booking luxury and river cruises that have a smaller capacity and higher fares.

Regardless of the new protocols and increase in fares, the recent rollout of coronavirus vaccines has created optimism within the sector, which has lost billions of dollars and thousands of jobs since the pandemic halted cruise ships in March.

“The cruise companies are doing everything they can to ensure that we can get back in a safe way, and I think they are nearly there,” said Shannon Wright, a 45-year-old beautician from Newcastle, England, who has booked two cruises for 2021. “It’s worth the wait.” — Ceylan Yeginsu

City or country? United States or international? Where can I expect crowds?

Since April, the majority of Americans have chosen to travel domestically, taking road trips, exploring small towns, scenic drives and nearby lakes and beaches. 

That trend is likely to continue into 2021, but interest in international travel has increased since November following the news of vaccines.

Cancun and Tulum in Mexico are among the top searched destinations for American travelers in 2021, alongside Oahu and Maui in Hawaii, according to a 2021 trends report by the online travel agency Expedia. 

Further-flung destinations such as French Polynesia, the Maldives and Bali are also popular.

“We expect pent-up demand for travel will continue to grow with the availability of Covid-19 vaccines,” said Monya Mandich, the vice president of Expedia Group Media Solutions. 

She added that of more than 11,000 people surveyed for a recent study, 57 percent said they would be comfortable traveling if a vaccine was widely available.

Recent search traffic also indicated an eagerness among travelers to return to major cities for cultural holidays, with most interest starting in June to late 2021. 

In the United States, Las Vegas, New York and Los Angeles were among the most searched urban destinations, according to Expedia. Data from the travel search engine, Skyscanner, showed that London is the most searched destination for Americans looking to travel internationally next summer.

“As we’ve seen with public health crises in the past, when people feel their chances of contracting the virus are minimal they start traveling again and come back very quickly,” said Allen Simpson, managing director of strategy at London & Partners, the international trade, investment and promotion agency for London. 

“We expect to see the same trend when people have been vaccinated for Covid-19.”

Mr. Simpson expects a phased return to London, starting with locals followed by visitors from across the country, the continent and then finally international tourists from further afield. 

Many of the city’s cultural attractions like museums and theaters in the West End will reopen gradually.

If vaccinations become widespread in the first quarter of next year, New York City also expects to see a surge in visitors from regional and short-haul domestic destinations, according to NYC & Company, the city’s tourism marketing agency.

The international market is expected to take longer to pick up, and is unlikely to reach 2019 levels before 2025, the agency said.

“Given significant pent-up demand, we target regaining half our 2019 volume by end of 2021 and to be fully back three years from then,” said Fred Dixon, the president and chief executive of NYC & Company. — C.Y.

When will I be traveling for business again? And what about my frequent-flier miles?

This was the year business travel flatlined, taking with it airline, hotel and convention hall profitability. 

For a time, it also jeopardized those loyalty-point balances coveted as freebie currency by frequent business travelers and many others, as miles and credit-card points seemed less valuable when no one was traveling.

But points programs are far from dead, experts say, citing better booking terms, the growing value of loyal customers to travel companies and the advent of creative programs that may allow you to spend points like cash more easily on things other than airline tickets or magazine subscriptions. In these largely stationary times, programs are keen to retain existing members.

“Most airlines have increased the value of their points by getting rid of fees,” said Brian Kelly, the founder of The Points Guy, a travel site devoted to rewards. 

He noted also that fees to change itineraries or refund miles on canceled trips have been dropped. 

“It makes it more valuable to redeem using miles because they’re fully refundable, whereas cash tickets are changeable.”

The bank of points — still somewhat growing thanks to travel-rewards credit cards that expanded to offer bonuses on things like groceries during the pandemic — and increasing opportunities to travel with the widespread distribution of vaccines suggest competition to redeem for seats is coming, leading to an eventual devaluation of points.

But not soon, say experts, in part because many airlines used their loyalty programs as collateral when they borrowed money during the pandemic.

“Airlines will be careful not to jeopardize value and the loyalty of customers once this crisis abates,” said Vik Krishnan, a partner in the travel practice at McKinsey & Company, the business consultants.

Most analysts expect any near-term travel recovery to be driven by leisure travelers desperate for a vacation or to see family, not by business fliers.

Apart from health concerns and corporate travel freezes, “business travelers need a place to go to and currently office occupancies are very, very low so there is no real reason to travel to a city,” said Jan D. Freitag, the national director of hospitality market analytics at Costar Group, a commercial real estate firm, pointing to data that shows office occupancy averaging around 24 percent nationally.

He expects business travel to pick up in the third quarter of 2021. McKinsey & Company pins the full recovery to 2023 or beyond.

Before business travelers can resume accumulating points in earnest, expect more ways to use them. “From a redemption perspective, we can see the need for a lot more emphasis on ‘micro rewards,’” Mr. Krishnan said, referring to everyday items like a Starbucks latte rather than saving the entire bank for a family trip to Hawaii.

Still, the next year might be that time to book a big trip with points, when it’s safe to do so, as devaluation is inevitable.

“I think what’s likely to happen is an increase in value in how points can be used in the first few quarters of 2021,” said Alex Miller, the chief executive and founder of UpgradedPoints.com, a website devoted to maximizing points. 

Thereafter, he expects “a slow devaluation of those points toward the back end of 2021 and into 2022.”— Elaine Glusac

If I need to cancel, will flexible policies still be around?

As the coronavirus crisis crushed travel, flexibility swept the industry, from airlines to cruises to R.V. rentals and hotels, as operators aimed to assure potential travelers they had little to lose — financially, anyway — in booking.

Airlines came a long way in bending to consumer sentiment, offering fee-free changes even on nonrefundable tickets as passenger volumes plummeted; they remain down nearly 70 percent compared to a year ago.

“The flexible booking policies for basic economy persist because right now the people who are traveling are lowest-fare leisure travelers,” said Gary Leff, who writes the air travel blog View From the Wing. 

“Those tickets need to have flexibility to get customers to buy.”

Airlines have talked about making flexibility permanent for other fares, a promise that may hold out until the industry recovers to 2019 levels, which the industry group Airlines for America doesn’t expect before 2023 or 2024.

While hotels have long had flexible cancellation conditions, usually allowing penalty-free cancellations a day before arrival, consumers in 2020 discovered — often the hard way — the variable terms of vacation rental homes, which can range from refundable 24 hours out to refundable only within 48 hours of booking.

“Cancellation policies in the vacation rental market have not changed,” said Clark Twiddy, the president of Twiddy & Company, which manages more than 1,000 vacation home rentals on the Outer Banks in North Carolina. 

“But we’ve seen a significant uptake in travel insurance,” he added, noting increases up to 40 percent. (Airbnb has announced it is working on securing a travel insurance partner to make it easy to insure bookings).

According to the United States Tour Operators Association, the most frequently asked question by travelers who made new bookings this fall was on the cancellation or refund policy, ahead of health protocol questions.

“The future of travel is more flexible. Period,” said Jon Gray, the chief executive of RVshare, a marketplace for recreational vehicle rentals, noting that travelers remain cautious and tend to book close to their travel dates.

But whether these consumer-friendly terms last will likely vary by sector, with airlines and cruise lines — two of the hardest-hit operations — likely to keep them in place longest. 

Many cruise lines, including MSC Cruises and Royal Caribbean, are offering changes up to 48 hours before departure and rebooking through at least April 2022, terms that were unheard-of before the pandemic.

“I expect flexible cruise cancellation policies to last at least through 2022, and maybe longer if cruise start dates push deeper into the summer ’21 sailing season,” said Robert Kwortnik Jr., an associate professor in the hotel school at Cornell University who has studied the cruise industry.— E.G.

Meghan Froloff and her children Evy and Nate take a walk in the Arcata Community Forest in Arcata, Calif.  The timeline for vaccinating children is unclear. Credit...Alexandra Hootnick for The New York Times

I’d like to travel with my family, what’s the outlook?

According to an October survey from Vrbo, the home-rental company, 82 percent of United States families already have travel plans for 2021. 

Sixty-five percent plan on traveling more than they did before Covid; 61 percent will likely choose outdoorsy destinations over urban ones.

Most notable this year for families, though, was the loss — or pause — of multigenerational trips.

“Intergenerational travel — going someplace with grandparents — is kind of off the books for a while,” said Marianne Perez de Fransius, the co-founder and chief executive of Bébé Voyage, a family-travel website and online community of globe-trotting parents. 

“What people are talking about is going to visit grandparents because they haven’t been able to do that.”

Other patterns that cropped up this year will likely continue to define family travel in 2021, including “schoolcations” that have transported middle-school Zoom classes to the beach and multifamily “pod” trips that have allowed for inter-household socializing somewhere — anywhere — besides home.

“We’re witnessing this over and over again: families seeing this time as a rare opportunity to uproot for a short stint as they home-school, and live in a place that they had always wanted to try out,” said Caitlin Ramsdale, the managing director at Kid & Coe, a vacation-rentals site geared toward families.

If Kid & Coe’s recent browsing patterns are any indication, families are starting to think about what vacations in the “After Times” might look like.

“We are seeing a lot of people starting to imagine what a trip to the South of France would look like this summer,” Ms. Ramsdale said. “The conviction is still not there, but the sentiment is.”

But there is one big, unanswered question: Vaccinations for children. None of the vaccines have been tested on kids, and while inoculations are being rolled out for older people first, it’s unclear when they will reach children.

“If kids can’t get the vaccine, one concern I’ve heard is about what happens with tourists,” said Ms. Perez de Fransius. “Are countries going to say, ‘You can’t come in unless everyone is vaccinated?’”

As for the quintessential family rite of passage — Disney — the parks’ expansive Covid-19 health and safety measures, which range from strict capacity limits to virtual queues, have so far been successful in creating a carefully controlled “bubble,” of sorts.

“Before the pandemic, safety was not usually top of people’s minds,” said Lou Mongello, the host of WDW Radio, a podcast about all things Disney. “Now the first thing we think about is, ‘Where’s the safest place that I can go to get my kids out of the house?’”

Walt Disney World Resort, in Orlando, was booked close to its capacity limit over Thanksgiving and is already 77 percent booked for the first quarter of 2021. Although kids can’t hug Cinderella, the health measures may play another role next year: “Anyone who visits next year will see that the park experience has become so much more efficient,” Mr. Mongello said. — Sarah Firshein

What new travel trends can I expect to continue in 2021?

Call them “workcations,” “flexcations,” bleisure, whatever: By any name, the longer trips that remote working facilitated in 2020 show no signs of slowing.

“Global nomadism is going to be a huge theme in 2021,” Jack Ezon, the founder of Embark Beyond, a luxury travel agency. “People are going to a destination for a month because they can work and play at the same time.”

Stays of seven or more nights currently account for 17.5 percent of the January bookings at The Betsy Hotel in Miami Beach, which reopened in mid-December for the first time since March. Last January, stays of that length totaled 8.3 percent.

Jonathan Plutzik, The Betsy’s owner, said interest in new extended-stay packages cut across the generational spectrum.

“Families with young children are looking for space: outdoor spaces to be with their kids and space to work remotely,” Mr. Plutzik said. “Fifty- and 60-somethings are looking for those things, plus a full-service staff and places to dine and relax outside.”

Until vaccinations are widespread, other patterns will also persist. Ever-changing state and county travel restrictions and international travel will continue to make staycations and local travel among the few options for those looking to get away.

That tracks with what most consumers say they feel ready to do next year. In an October survey from Airbnb, 61 percent of respondents said they’re interested in trips within driving distance of home. Top 2021 destinations on Airbnb include Tennessee’s Smoky Mountains and Palm Springs, Calif.

“Twenty-twenty was definitely the year the world went local,” said Mr. Ezon. “People were forced to explore their own backyards, which was incredibly rewarding. But by May or June, with more vaccines, borders will probably start to open.”— S.F.

A hotel worker cleans the windows in a restaurant area at the Acropolian Spirit Hotel in Athens. Hygiene has become a major focus in travel. Credit...Petros Giannakouris/Associated Press


Will I ever feel safe traveling?

Among the many things the pandemic revealed about the travel industry is that almost every sector — from airlines and cruises to travel agencies and hotels — was ill-prepared to handle a crisis of this magnitude, as were governments. 

The crush to keep customers happy (or at least loyal), provide refunds where possible and even bring citizens home at the start of the pandemic, showed that no matter how many contingency plans were in place, there are some things no one can prepare for.

In the months since the pandemic took hold, people across the industry have been working to create policies and procedures that can apply in times of future crisis — even if that future crisis isn’t a health crisis. Many companies will use these changes, particularly in health and safety measures, to woo travelers back in 2021.

For hotels and home-sharing, perhaps the most visible change is the emphasis on cleanliness. People have learned to deeply care about the hygiene of heavily trafficked spaces, like hotels, planes and trains, and will demand a stepped-up focus on health measures.

This approach is largely meant to put travelers at ease. Designations and ranking systems that take cleanliness and safety into account could become the norm in the hospitality industry.

Partnerships with trusted cleaning-supply brands or hospitals will continue to evolve and be marketed to would-be travelers. Amtrak touts its relationship with RB, the makers of Lysol, while a partnership between Pendry Hotels and the health service One Medical gives hotel guests access to One Medical’s app even after they’ve checked out. 

In the Dominican Republic, guests of the Casa de Campo Resort & Villas now receive government-sponsored medical coverage and have V.I.P. access to the resort’s on site hospital, Central Romana Medical Center, which sits within the walls of the property.

Beyond cleanliness and health measures, travelers’ fears could be assuaged by clearer communication, flexible cancellation and rescheduling policies, and better use of technology during every aspect of the travel experience.

Hussein Fazal and Henry Shi, the founders of SnapTravel, an app that uses artificial intelligence to help customers book hotels with messaging apps like Facebook Messenger and iMessage, have said that to adapt to the “new world,” they made tweaks to focus more on spontaneous bookings and encourage hesitant customers to chat with a live agent.

They added Covid-19 messaging and notifications throughout the process. This allowed SnapTravel to see growth throughout the year, while also easing traveler fears, and these changes would work in the event of other unprecedented crises. — T. M.


Brian Chen contributed reporting.

Tariro Mzezewa is a travel reporter at The New York Times.  @tariro

Ceylan Yeginsu is a London-based reporter. She joined The Times in 2013, and was previously a correspondent in Turkey covering politics, the migrant crisis, the Kurdish conflict, and the rise of Islamic State extremism in Syria and the region.

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